August 18, 2010 | Environmental Health News
Toxic Pesticide Banned after Decades of Use
Twenty-five years after the worst outbreak of pesticide poisoning in U.S. history, an agreement is announced that phases out all uses of aldicarb
A farm chemical with an infamous history – causing the worst known outbreak of pesticide poisoning in North America – is being phased out under an agreement announced Tuesday by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Manufacturer Bayer CropScience agreed to stop producing aldicarb, a highly toxic insecticide used to kill pests on cotton and several food crops, by 2015 in all world markets. Use on citrus and potatoes will be prohibited after next year.
Tuesdays announcement comes 25 years after a highly publicized outbreak of aldicarb poisoning sickened more than 2,000 people who had eaten California watermelons.
New EPA documents show that babies and children under five can ingest levels of the insecticide through food and water that exceed levels the agency considers safe.
“Aldicarb no longer meets our rigorous food safety standards and may pose unacceptable dietary risks, especially to infants and young children, the EPA said in announcing the agreement.
For infants, consumption of aldicarb residue – mostly in potatoes, citrus and water – can reach 800 percent higher than the EPAs level of concern for health effects, while children between the ages of one and five can ingest 300 percent more than the level of concern, according to an Aug. 4 EPA memo.
In a statement, Bayer CropScience said Tuesday that its decision to agree to phase out aldicarb came after EPAs new report calculated the health risks to children.
The company said it “respects the oversight authority of the EPA and is cooperating with them even though it “does not fully agree with the agency's new assessment. Bayer CropScience stressed that the analysis “does not mean that aldicarb poses an actual risk to consumers.
One of the most acutely hazardous pesticides still used in the United States, aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide that is taken up by roots and carried into the fruit of a plant. High levels of aldicarb can have neurotoxic effects; it inhibits an enzyme that controls the transmission of messages to nerves.
“After thousands of poisonings, it is mind-boggling that aldicarb is still in use, said Steve Scholl-Buckwald, managing director of the environmental group Pesticide Action Network North America. “The wheels just grind so, so slowly. It never should have been registered in the first place back in 1970 and by the mid-1980s there was sufficient data to suggest it should have been taken off the market.
On the Fourth of July in 1985, three people who had eaten watermelon in Oakland, Calif., rapidly became ill with symptoms that included vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitches and abnormally slow heart rates. At the same time, people in Oregon were falling ill, too, and tests of watermelons found extremely high levels of aldicarb, which was illegal to use on all melons.
California ordered an immediate ban on watermelon sales, which meant huge quantities had to be destroyed in fields and at stores at the height of the season. How aldicarb got into watermelons remains unknown, but experts suspected that some melon farmers used low levels of it intentionally and illegally and that some also might have flowed off nearby cotton fields.That summer, a total of 1,350 cases of aldicarb poisoning from watermelon were reported in California, plus another 692 cases in eight other states and Canada, according to a report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seventeen people were hospitalized. Six deaths and two stillbirths were reported in people who fell ill, but the pesticide was not listed as the cause of death in coroner reports.
To date, it remains the largest case of pesticide food poisoning documented in North America.
Richard Jackson, who was a top official in Californias health department at the time of the watermelon poisonings, testified at a U.S. Senate hearing back in 1991 that aldicarb posed a health risk to children and that regulations offered an inadequate margin of safety.
“It is good the revocation is happening; it is a shame it took 20 years, said Jackson, now chair of environmental health sciences at UCLA.
Dr. Lynn Goldman, an environmental health professor at Johns Hopkins Universitys Bloomberg School of Public Health, also welcomed the agreement, noting that aldicarb has been under special review at the EPA for more than 25 years.
“It is good to see that EPA and Bayer have now reached an agreement to phase out the remaining uses, Goldman said Tuesday.
Goldman was an epidemiologist with Californias health department when the outbreak occurred.
“As a state health official, I wanted to see stronger action on aldicarb, she said, adding that she and Jackson “recommended that aldicarb be banned in California, because of its potency and what seemed to be a large temptation for misuse. We obviously did not prevail.
Aldicarb was the first of the so-called “dirty dozen pesticides that an environmental group, Pesticide Action Network North America, targeted in 1985 for worldwide ban. At the time, it was found in bananas and in well water on Long Island, NY.
Scholl-Buckwald said that the EPA relies mostly on voluntary agreements, instead of bans, to avoid lawsuits from manufacturers.
“The system is designed to leave things like this on the market as long as possible. Its innocent until proven guilty. Its really unconscionable that it takes literally decades to do this, he said.
Goldman in 1993 was named EPA assistant administrator overseeing pesticide programs, but she said Tuesday that even then, her efforts to restrict aldicarb were hamstrung by insufficient scientific evidence at the time and a weak pesticide law. She said she faced “the need to exercise due process in making sure that the company producing the chemical had a fair hearing.Years later, in 2007, the EPA concluded that there were “potential human health risks from drinking-water contamination, as well as risks to birds and other wildlife. But the agency approved its continued use with added precautions, such as increased setbacks between fields and water wells and reduced amounts applied to crops.
Then, this month, the EPA revised its analysis using new toxicity data and determined that current uses meant babies and young children were at risk of being exposed to levels in water and food that exceeded the agencys level of concern.
Aldicarb residues are found in grapefruit, oranges, orange juice, potatoes, frozen French fries and sweet potatoes. It already has been banned in bananas because of the potential for high exposure in children.
In the new analysis, childrens exposure from drinking water was estimated based on aldicarb use at cotton and peanut farms in Georgia.
“Potatoes, citrus and water are the greatest contributors to the aldicarb exposure, the EPA document says.
Bayer researchers recently reported that water contamination has been minimal. They analyzed 1,673 drinking-water wells that were within 300 meters of fields treated with aldicarb, which has the trade name Temik, and found that none violated the EPAs health advisory limit.
“For nearly 40 years, Temik has provided farmers with unsurpassed control of destructive pests, without compromising human health or environmental safety, Bill Buckner, president and CEO of Bayer CropScience, said in a statement Tuesday.
While it is known that high exposure can cause vomiting, diarrhea and neurotoxic effects, the potential for chronic health effects from low exposure remains poorly understood. It is not carcinogenic, although researchers found a high rate of colon cancer in pesticide applicators exposed to high levels.
Its use has steeply declined in the U.S. over the past couple of decades, particularly on food crops. It is currently legal to use only on citrus, potatoes, dry beans, peanuts, soybeans, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and cotton. Its main use is to kill mites and nematodes on cotton, potatoes and citrus.
In 2008, about 75,000 pounds were applied to California crops – almost entirely cotton - compared with more than half a million pounds in 1998, according to state Department of Pesticide Regulation data.
Union Carbide was the sole manufacturer of aldicarb until 1987. Its plant in Bhopal, India, was making aldicarb when a pesticide called methyl isocyanate leaked, killing several thousand people in 1984.
Aldicarb already has been banned in Europe, although it is still used, and perhaps manufactured, in other countries.
Under the new agreement, Bayer, the sole U.S. manufacturer, said its distribution will end by 2017. Use on citrus and potatoes will be banned beginning in 2012, and all remaining uses will end in 2018. In the meantime, new requirements will go into effect to change labeling and to protect ground water near cotton, soybean and peanut farms.
“We recognize the significant impact this decision will have on growers and the food industry, and will do everything possible to address their concerns during this transition, Buckner said. He added, “We recognize the loss of this tool to growers and will seek innovative solutions to fill this void.
But Scholl-Buckwald said he was disappointed that the agreement didnt have earlier deadlines.
“After 40 years, the question is why should there be a phaseout period at all, he said. By Marla Cone
August 16, 2010, The Charleston Gazette
Bayer pesticide phased out for 'unacceptable' risks
CHARLESTON, W.Va. -- A pesticide that is a major product of Bayer CropScience's Institute plant will be phased out because it "may pose unacceptable dietary risks, especially to infants and young children," the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency confirmed Tuesday.
EPA said Bayer had agreed to end production of the pesticide aldicarb by Dec. 31, 2014, following completion of a new agency study that found kids could be exposed to up to eight times the level of the chemical considered safe.
Bayer negotiated the phase-out plan with EPA after working for 20 years to keep its Temik brand of aldicarb on the market. Company press releases continued to maintain Tuesday that the phase-out does not mean aldicarb poses a "food safety concern" or "an actual risk."
"It's not surprising that Bayer would say there is no concern, since they've been fighting since 1990 to try to keep this thing on the market," said Olga Naidenko, a senior scientist with the Environmental Working Group in Washington, D.C. "This has been two decades in the making."
The Institute plant has produced aldicarb for years, dating back to the Union Carbide days. The technology was sold to Rhone-Poulenc, then to Aventis, and then to Bayer.
Bayer officials said that they did not yet know what impact the phase-out action would have on operations and employment at the roughly 700-worker Institute facility.
Kent Carper, president of the Kanawha County Commission, said the company told local officials job losses aren't inevitable and will depend on the plant's ability to juggle workers among various products.
"Bayer CropScience is committed to bringing new innovation solutions from seed to harvest to growers to ensure we continue to have a safe, abundant and affordable food supply," said Bayer CropScience CEO Bill Buckner.
Aldicarb is a carbamate pesticide, meaning it is derived from carbamic acid. Also important to aldicarb's production is methyl isocyanate, or MIC, the chemical building block that killed thousands of people in a 1984 leak from a Carbide plant in Bhopal, India.
Under the deal with EPA, Bayer can continue to use aldicarb on potatoes and citrus crops until Dec. 31, 2011. All production of the chemical must end by Dec. 31, 2014, and all distribution two years after that.
During the phase-out, the pesticide can continue to be used on cotton, dry beans, peanuts, soybeans, sugar beets and sweet potatoes.
"Although the company does not fully agree with this risk assessment approach, Bayer CropScience respects the oversight authority of the EPA and is cooperating with them," the company said in a prepared statement.
Exposure to aldicarb can cause weakness, blurred vision, headaches and nausea. Very high doses can paralyze the respiratory system and be fatal to humans. EPA has previously said that aldicarb is one of the most acutely toxic pesticides registered in the U.S.
In the 1980s, aldicarb poisoning was blamed for the illnesses of banana workers in Costa Rica and consumers of tainted watermelons in Oregon and California. In 1990, the use of aldicarb on potatoes was briefly suspended because of health concerns until Bayer submitted new data arguing that a more controlled application would be safe. Then, in 2003, the European Union banned many uses of aldicarb, citing safety concerns.
Already, the Bayer plant in Institute was under pressure following the August 2008 explosion and fire that killed two workers and prompted new concerns about the facility's huge stockpile of MIC. Bayer has promised to reduce that inventory by 80 percent, at least in part by eliminating two of the four uses of MIC at the plant. When aldicarb production ends, the only use for MIC at Institute will be in making carbaryl, a key ingredient in the pesticide Sevin.
Bayer spokesman Jack Boyne said it is not clear what impact the aldicarb decision will have on the plant's production, use and storage of MIC. "We'll have to take a look at that," Boyne said.
Maya Nye, a spokeswoman for the group People Concerned About MIC, said Tuesday, "Bayer better start looking at how they're going to operate in an economy that holds corporations accountable for paying the true costs of production, because that's the way the world is moving." By Ken Ward Jr.
The Item, December 31, 2010
Hunters fine after exposed to pesticide in Lee
Thirteen deer hunters exposed to a pesticide in Lee County are Ok, according to officials, but four dogs died as a result of coming into contact with Temik.
Lt. Robert McCullough of the S.C. Department of Natural Resources said Friday that 13 people went to Kershaw Memorial Hospital in Camden on Thursday.
An 11-year-old boy was admitted Thursday, he said, and was released Friday.
"Nobody else showed any signs," of exposure to the agricultural pesticide, he said. "Nobody else had any symptoms."
The Department of Health and Environmental Control, DNR and the Lee County Sheriff's Office continue to investigate how the exposures happened, he said.
Lee County Sheriff Daniel Simon said Friday his office is assisting in the investigation.
The exposure to Temik happened about 2:30 to 3 p.m. on Thursday off Dog Island Road, he said, on private land.
Clemson Extension Service is taking the lead in the investigation, he said.
"We're just assisting and making sure there's no other exposure. That was the biggest thing," he said.
The Wall Street Journal reported in August that German drug maker Bayer AG would phase out production of Temik, a pesticide used on cotton, peanuts and potatoes, following a study showing the 40-year-old product doesn't meet food safety standards.
Temik is also known as aldicarb and can only be applied by trained pesticide applicators, the WSJ reported, noting Temik was first used on cotton in 1970.
The Environmental Protection Agency study said aldicarb posed an unacceptable dietary risk, especially to young children.
Bayer's CropScience unit said it would stop marketing aldicarb in the U.S. by 2014. By JOE PERRY